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 Washington Papers Consolidated Index | S |  Slaves and slavery

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References

From William Fairfax, 26–27 April 1756 [Colonial Series 3:58]+

From Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, 13 August 1775 [Revolutionary War Series 1:302]

From John Hancock, 11 July 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:270]+

To Colonel James Clinton, 21 July 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:414]+

To John Parke Custis, 24 July 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:441]

From Nathaniel Woodhull, 26 July 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:479]+

From Brigadier General Hugh Mercer, 31 July 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:528]+

From John Parke Custis, 8 August 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 5:622]

From Abraham Yates, Jr., 4 September 1776 [Revolutionary War Series 6:221]+

From Brigadier General James Mitchell Varnum, 1–4 April 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:43]

From Nicholas Cooke, 14 April 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:160]

From Major General William Heath, 16 April 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:178]+

From Emmanuel de Pliarne, 28 April 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:298]+

From Major General Joseph Spencer, 30 April 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:313]

To Captain Caleb Gibbs, 1 May 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:323]+

From James Craik, 13 May 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:409]

From Major General Israel Putnam, 30 May 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:566]

From Gabriel Jones, 6 June 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 9:623]

From Major General Philip Schuyler, 14 July 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 10:280]

From Major General Philip Schuyler, 18 July 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 10:328]

To Captain Charles Van Swearingen, 18 August 1777 [Revolutionary War Series 10:662]

From Bryan Fairfax, 10 April 1778 [Revolutionary War Series 14:454]+

To William Smith, 21 August 1778 [Revolutionary War Series 16:349]+

General Orders, 7 September 1778 [Revolutionary War Series 16:535]+

To George Augustine Washington, 10 June 1787 [Confederation Series 5:226]

To Battaile Muse, 31 March 1789 [Presidential Series 1:472]+

To George Augustine Washington, 31 March 1789 [Presidential Series 1:473]

To George Augustine Washington, 31 March 1789 [Presidential Series 1:474]

To George Augustine Washington, 31 March 1789 [Presidential Series 1:476]

From Daniel Lyman, 12 March 1790 [Presidential Series 5:222]+

From David Stuart, 2 June 1790 [Presidential Series 5:463]

To Charles Carter of Ludlow, 14 September 1790 [Presidential Series 6:433]

From Henry Lee, 4 December 1791 [Presidential Series 9:251]+

To Anthony Whitting, 17 February 1793 [Presidential Series 12:164]

To Anthony Whitting, 19 May 1793 [Presidential Series 12:613]

To Howell Lewis, 10 November 1793 [Presidential Series 14:354]

From Thomas Mifflin, 31 December 1793 [Presidential Series 14:653]+

From Tobias Lear, 4 February 1794 [Presidential Series 15:181]+

From William Tilghman, 1 March 1794 [Presidential Series 15:308]+

From the Commissioners for the District of Columbia, 23 March 1794 [Presidential Series 15:434]+

From Arthur Young, 2 June 1794 [Presidential Series 16:179]

From Henry Knox, 4 August 1794 [Presidential Series 16:471]+

Subentries

Jump to “See Also” entries

– abolition laws [1 reference]

– abolition of [1 reference]

– abolition societies [1 reference]

– accounts for work of [2 references]

– accused of theft [5 references]

– advertisement for runaways [1 reference]

– agricultural use of [1 reference]

– agricultural work of [6 references]

– allowed to overseers [2 references]

– American captives in Algiers [1 reference]

– among southern Indians [1 reference]

– and abolition sentiment [1 reference]

– and accidents [2 references]

– and agricultural machinery [1 reference]

– and British [3 references]

– and Custis estate [1 reference]

– and dogs [1 reference]

– and embarkation rolls [2 references]

– and farm machinery [1 reference]

– and fear of smallpox [1 reference]

– and free blacks on Grenada [2 references]

– and freedom laws of Pennsylvania [4 references]

– and GW [7 references]

– and GW's death [5 references]

– and James River Company [2 references]

– and John Augustine Washington [1 reference]

– and kidnapping of free blacks [1 reference]

– and Lafayette's plans for free blacks [1 reference]

– and lists of those embarking at New York City [1 reference]

– and Martha Washington [4 references]

– and Mary Ball Washington's estate [9 references]

– and missing dower ledger [1 reference]

– and Mount Vernon lease [2 references]

– and Oliver Pollock [1 reference]

– and overseers [9 references]

– and Pennsylvania 1788 abolition law [1 reference]

– and Pennsylvania freedom laws [1 reference]

– and proposal to rent Mount Vernon [1 reference]

– and Quakers [5 references]

– and Revolutionary War [2 references]

– and St. Domingue free blacks [1 reference]

– and St. Domingue slave revolt [1 reference]

– and slave market at Malta [1 reference]

– and slave revolts [5 references]

– and Spanish policy [1 reference]

– and their children [1 reference]

– and the Revolutionary War [1 reference]

– and Treaty of Paris (1783) [7 references]

– “an uncertain and precarious Security” [1 reference]

– appraisals of [7 references]

– apprehension of runaways [18 references]

– arming of [1 reference]

– army enlistment proposals [2 references]

– as Creek prisoners [1 reference]

– as married couples [1 reference]

– as payment for debt [11 references]

– as personal servants [11 references]

– as security for debt [8 references]

– as sellers of articles [1 reference]

– assigned to farm manager [1 reference]

– associations with neighbors of Mount Vernon [1 reference]

– “as trusty . . . as most white men” [1 reference]

– at Arlington plantation [1 reference]

– at Ashford's quarter [1 reference]

– at Brick House plantation [2 references]

– at Bridge Quarter [3 references]

– at Bullskin [1 reference]

– at Claiborne's plantation [6 references]

– at Creek farm [5 references]

– at Dogue Run [20 references]

– at dower plantations [2 references]

– at Ferry farm (Mount Vernon) [8 references]

– at French's plantation [1 reference]

– at Gist's quarter [1 reference]

– at Great House plantation [5 references]

– at Harlow's plantation [1 reference]

– at Home House farm [22 references]

– at Jackson's quarter [1 reference]

– at Mill farm [12 references]

– at Mount Vernon [37 references]

– at Muddy Hole [21 references]

– at Old Quarter [2 references]

– at River farm [20 references]

– at Rockahock plantation [2 references]

– at Ship Landing [3 references]

– at the White House (on Pamunkey River) [1 reference]

– at Washington's Bottom tract [5 references]

– at Williamson's farm [2 references]

– at York River [1 reference]

– Augustine Washington's [1 reference]

– belonging to Custis estate [24 references]

– belonging to overseer [1 reference]

– bitten by mad dog [2 references]

– blacksmiths [28 references]

– blankets for [8 references]

– board paid for [1 reference]

– boat builder [1 reference]

– bought and sold [77 references]

– bound to blacksmith [3 references]

– bricklayers [8 references]

– brickmakers [2 references]

– British use of [1 reference]

– captives in Algiers [1 reference]

– captured [3 references]

– captured by British [2 references]

– care for livestock [1 reference]

– care of [1 reference]

– carpenters [58 references]

– carried away illegally by overseer [1 reference]

– carry firewood [1 reference]

– carry money [1 reference]

– carters and wagoners [8 references]

– casualties [2 references]

– census of [1 reference]

– charges for transporting of [1 reference]

– Charles Lee's views of [1 reference]

– children [6 references]

– clothing and accessories for [90 references]

– coachmen [3 references]

– comments on [4 references]

– compared to free laborers [1 reference]

– compared to impressment [2 references]

– conductors of horses [1 reference]

– conspiracy of [1 reference]

– cooks [11 references]

– coopers [10 references]

– cost of labor [1 reference]

– costs of [3 references]

– couriers [5 references]

– cradlers [2 references]

– criticism of [2 references]

– criticized [1 reference]

– dairymaids [6 references]

– danger of rebellion [1 reference]

– deaths of [10 references]

– descriptions of [5 references]

– desire to stay with their children [1 reference]

– diet and clothing of [22 references]

– dispute of with white woman [1 reference]

– disputes over [2 references]

– distillers [3 references]

– disturbances reported [1 reference]

– ditchers [5 references]

– division of Augustine Washington's slaves [1 reference]

– dogs of [1 reference]

– dower [26 references]

– Dr. Craik's [1 reference]

– Dunmore offers freedom to [4 references]

– duties of [1 reference]

– duties on [2 references]

– dwellings of [2 references]

– emancipation [4 references + 1 subentry]

– embarkation of from New York [1 reference]

– enlistment [5 references]

– escape to British [1 reference]

– escaped [1 reference]

– estimated cost of their needs [1 reference]

– evacuated in Virginia [1 reference]

– execution of [4 references]

– expenses recovering runaway slaves [1 reference]

– families of [1 reference]

– ferriages for [3 references]

– ferrymen [8 references]

– fiddlers [2 references]

– field hands [1 reference]

– fishermen [13 references]

– flee to Florida [7 references]

– food of [11 references]

– for Hampshire County land [2 references]

– for the Dismal Swamp Company [4 references]

– for western lands [12 references]

– freed [1 reference]

– freeing of urged [2 references]

– French settlers plan to breed [1 reference]

– from John Dandridge's estate [1 reference]

– from Mary Ball Washington's estate [1 reference]

– frostbitten [3 references]

– gardeners [7 references]

– General Court petitioned for permission to sell runaway [1 reference]

– George Mason's indictment of slavery [1 reference]

– George William Fairfax's [3 references]

– Georgia-Spanish conflict concerning [2 references]

– Gilbert Simpson's [1 reference]

– give birth [1 reference]

– give information to the British [1 reference]

– given by Mrs. Washington for use of sisters [1 reference]

– given money [119 references]

– given to George Augustine Washington [3 references]

– going to Alexandria [1 reference]

– grooms [1 reference]

– GW attempts to buy [1 reference]

– GW controls all Custis slaves [1 reference]

– G.W. Fairfax's slaves sent to Berkeley County [1 reference]

– GW frees [4 references]

– GW hires [8 references]

– GW on Quaker petitions against [2 references]

– GW receives for debt [2 references]

– GW rents slaves from George Lee [2 references]

– GW's care of [1 reference]

– GW's heavy losses in [2 references]

– GW's opinion of [8 references]

– GW's personal servant [1 reference]

– GW's requirements for work by [1 reference]

– GW's threats to [1 reference]

– GW's views on [3 references]

– GW's views on industry of [6 references]

– GW takes slaves for payment [1 reference]

– harbored by Spanish officials [2 references]

– health [11 references]

– high cost of maintaining [1 reference]

– hired hands [2 references]

– hired out for public works [1 reference]

– hiring of [47 references]

– holiday [3 references]

– horsetrainers [2 references]

– House of Representatives' action on [1 reference]

– house servants [33 references]

– housing for [9 references]

– hunted with dogs [1 reference]

– ignorance of [1 reference]

– illness of [97 references]

– in Brazil [1 reference]

– in childbirth [6 references]

– in Custis estate [12 references]

– in deep mourning [1 reference]

– in estates [2 references]

– individual names of [62 references]

– indulged [2 references]

– in Fairfax County [2 references]

– in Fairfax Parish [6 references]

– inform on runaways [1 reference]

– in GW's Philadelphia household [5 references]

– inherited by GW [1 reference]

– injuries of [8 references]

– in King William County [2 references]

– in Maryland [1 reference]

– in Mexico [1 reference]

– in New Kent County [2 references]

– inoculation of [3 references]

– in Northwest Territory [4 references]

– in Pennsylvania [2 references]

– in Philadelphia [7 references]

– in presidential household [4 references]

– in prison [2 references]

– in Saint Domingue [3 references]

– in South Carolina and Georgia [1 reference]

– inspection rolls of [1 reference]

– instructions for use of [3 references]

– international slave trade [1 reference]

– in the Custis estate [1 reference]

– in Truro Parish [6 references]

– inventories of slaves on Custis estates [8 references]

– in Virginia [1 reference]

– in western territory [1 reference]

– in York County [3 references]

– ironers [1 reference]

– iron spancels used on [1 reference]

– jobbers [1 reference]

– John Elliott, Jr., on [1 reference]

– John Parke Custis's [17 references]

– John Posey suspected of selling mortgaged slaves in Florida [1 reference]

– keep fowls [1 reference]

– killed or carried off by Indians [2 references]

– kitchen workers [1 reference]

– knitters and spinners [12 references]

– labor at Mount Vernon [4 references]

– labor of [3 references]

– Lafayette's emancipation of [1 reference]

– Lawrence Washington's [3 references]

– laws regarding [2 references + 1 subentry]

– legacies [1 reference]

– legislation on [1 reference]

– letter bearers [3 references]

– levies and taxes on [25 references]

– liquor for [1 reference]

– lists of [1 reference + 5 subentries]

– livery clothes for [2 references]

– livery of [1 reference]

– living conditions of [1 reference]

– living quarters of [2 references]

– lodging for [4 references]

– losses among [1 reference]

– Lund Washington's [2 references]

– management and discipline of [16 references]

– manumission of [3 references + 1 subentry]

– married [10 references]

– Martha Parke Custis's maid [2 references]

– Martha Washington's dower rights in [5 references]

– Massachusetts laws about [1 reference]

– masons [2 references]

– medical care of [21 references]

– memorials concerning [2 references]

– mend clothing [1 reference]

– menservants [1 reference]

– messengers [31 references]

– midwives for [27 references]

– millers [15 references]

– miller's assistants [1 reference]

– miners [1 reference]

– mortgages on [4 references]

– Mount Vernon dower slaves [2 references]

– moved from York County to Mount Vernon [3 references]

– Mrs. Washington and Nanny [1 reference]

– Mrs. Washington's personal maid [1 reference]

– multiple births of [1 reference]

– names of [2 references]

– need for [1 reference]

– “Negroe Doctr” [6 references]

– “Negroe Harry” sells nuts [1 reference]

– no record of purchase and sale found [1 reference]

– nurse the sick [2 references]

– of Burgess Ball [1 reference]

– of Edmund Randolph [2 references]

– offered for sale [1 reference]

– offered in payment of rent [1 reference]

– of GW [5 references + 10 subentries]

– of Martha Dangerfield Bland [2 references]

– of Mary Ball Washington [2 references]

– on Custis plantations [4 references]

– on Eastern Shore [1 reference]

– on George Mercer's land [4 references]

– on GW's Southern Tour [1 reference]

– on GW's western lands [3 references]

– on John Parke Custis's plantations [2 references]

– on Little Falls quarter [1 reference]

– on the Custis dower plantations [2 references]

– on wrecked vessel [1 reference]

– opposition to [5 references]

– outlawed [1 reference]

– overseers [26 references]

– overseers directed to care for [3 references]

– owned by Augustine Washington [1 reference]

– owned by Dismal Swamp Company [1 reference]

– owned by GW [3 references]

– owned by Lord Fairfax [1 reference]

– painters [1 reference]

– pamphlets concerning [1 reference]

– pass as free men [1 reference]

– past labor [1 reference]

– payment for execution of [5 references]

– Pennsylvania 1788 abolition law [1 reference]

– plowers [3 references]

– plundered [1 reference]

– poachers apprehended by [1 reference]

– poisoned [2 references]

– portrait of [1 reference]

– postilions [4 references]

– Potomac River Company workmen [5 references]

– prices of [3 references]

– process of outlawing [1 reference]

– prohibition of slave trade [1 reference]

– property of Susannah Perrin Holding Washington [1 reference]

– provisions for [1 reference]

– provisions for in GW's will [1 reference]

– punishment of [1 reference]

– purchase of [16 references + 1 subentry]

– purchase of blankets for [1 reference]

– quarters of [5 references]

– raise poultry [1 reference]

– rebellions of [13 references]

– recovery of [1 reference]

– refusal of to return to Virginia [2 references]

– refuse to leave area [1 reference]

– refuse to leave wife and children [2 references]

– refuse to work [1 reference]

– reimbursement for executed slaves [1 reference]

– relocation of [1 reference]

– removal from Belvoir [1 reference]

– removed by British [1 reference]

– renting of [7 references]

– report on labor of [1 reference]

– Resolves state no slaves to be imported [2 references]

– rum dispensed to [2 references]

– runaways [64 references]

– runaway to be sent to Eastern Shore [1 reference]

– salaries for [1 reference]

– sales [25 references]

– sale of averted [2 references]

– sale of Thomas Colvill's [1 reference]

– scullions [1 reference]

– seamstresses [6 references]

– seized by French privateers [1 reference]

– sell produce [2 references]

– sent to Berkeley County [1 reference]

– sent to western lands [8 references]

– separation of families [8 references]

– servant's accomodation at King's College [1 reference]

– shipped to West Indies [6 references]

– shirtmakers [1 reference]

– shoemakers [3 references]

– shoemaker's tools for [1 reference]

– shoes for [1 reference]

– slave trade called “a wicked cruel and unnatural Trade” [1 reference]

– South Carolina bans importation of [1 reference]

– spy activities [1 reference]

– statements opposing [1 reference]

– “strange Negroes” not allowed on plantations [1 reference]

– stud managers [1 reference]

– suffer from famine [1 reference]

– supervision of [1 reference]

– suspected thefts by [1 reference]

– taken by Creek Indians [1 reference]

– taken by Indians [2 references]

– taken by the British [10 references]

– tanners [2 references]

– tasks of [7 references]

– testimony barred [1 reference]

– thefts of [2 references]

– their wives and children live elsewhere [1 reference]

– Thomas Claggett's [1 reference]

– thrashes overseer [1 reference]

– tithables [16 references]

– to be exchanged for land [2 references]

– to be returned by Indians [1 reference]

– to be sold for debt [1 reference]

– to manage stud [1 reference]

– too young for tithable list [1 reference]

– trade of [4 references]

– tradesmen [14 references]

– transfer of [4 references]

– travel expenses of [5 references]

– travel of [2 references]

– treated for mad dog bite [3 references]

– treatment of [1 reference]

– tree pruners [2 references]

– truck patches of [1 reference]

– used as security for debts [1 reference]

– use of at Mount Vernon [1 reference]

– value of [2 references]

– views on abolition of [1 reference]

– Virginia patrolling law [2 references]

– visits by [1 reference]

– waiters [1 reference]

– warning of a conspiracy among [1 reference]

– washers [1 reference]

– weavers [4 references]

– well for [2 references]

– western lands worked by [3 references]

– whipped [1 reference]

– Will's carpenter's account [1 reference]

– with spouse on different plantation [1 reference]

– wives and children of [1 reference]

– woodcutters [1 reference]

– work habits of [2 references]

– work of [31 references]

– works on mill [1 reference]

– work with crops [2 references]

See Also

See also Agriculture

See also Custis estate: settlement of the Daniel Parke Custis estate

See also Blacks

See also Free blacks

See also Mount Vernon

See also Servants

See also Slaves and slavery: of GW