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Ratification by the States | Volume VIII: Virginia, No. 1 | Documents

I: The Debate over the Constitution in Virginia, 3 September 1787–31 March 1788
IntroductionRichard Henry Lee to John Adams, New York, 3 September 1787George Mason and Edmund Randolph in the Constitutional Convention, 12–15 SeptemberGov. Edmund Randolph to Lt. Gov. Beverley Randolph, Philadelphia, 18 SeptemberGeorge Washington to the Marquis de Lafayette, Philadelphia, 18 SeptemberJames Madison to Edmund Pendleton, Philadelphia, 20 SeptemberRobert Milligan to William Tilghman, Philadelphia, 20 SeptemberEdward Carrington to James Madison, New York, 23 SeptemberGeorge Washington to Patrick Henry, Benjamin Harrison, and Thomas Nelson, Jr., Mount Vernon, 24 SeptemberJohn Dawson to James Madison, Fredericksburg, 25 September§ Editors’ Note: The Publication of the Constitution in Virginia, 26 September–3 NovemberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 26 September§ Editors’ Note: The Confederation Congress and the Constitution, New York, 26–28 SeptemberJohn Banister, Jr., to Thomas Jefferson, Battersea, 27 SeptemberBerkeley County Meeting, 28 SeptemberAlexandria and Fairfax County Meetings, 28 September–2 OctoberRichard Henry Lee to Elbridge Gerry, New York, 29 SeptemberEdmund Randolph to James Madison, Bowling Green, 30 SeptemberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 30 SeptemberRichard Henry Lee to George Mason, New York, 1 OctoberThe Reverend James Madison to Thomas Madison, Williamsburg, 1 OctoberThe Reverend James Madison to James Madison, Williamsburg, c. 1 OctoberRichard Henry Lee to William Shippen, Jr. New York, 2 OctoberHenry Knox to George Washington, New York, 3 OctoberArthur Lee to John Adams, New York, 3 OctoberSt. George Tucker to Frances Bland Tucker, Richmond, 3 OctoberBenjamin Harrison to George Washington, Berkeley, 4 OctoberRichard Henry Lee to Samuel Adams, New York, 5 OctoberWilliamsburg Meeting, 6 OctoberGeorge Mason: Objections to the Constitution, 7 OctoberEdmund Pendleton to James Madison, Edmundsbury, 8 OctoberEdmund Pendleton to Nathaniel Pendleton, Jr. Edmundsbury, 10 OctoberGeorge Washington to David Humphreys, Mount Vernon, 10 OctoberGeorge Washington to James Madison, Mount Vernon, 10 October§ Editors’ Note: Governor Edmund Randolph to the Speaker of the House of Delegates, Richmond, 10 OctoberRichard Henry Lee to George Washington, New York, 11 OctoberVirginia Herald, 11 October§ Editors’ Note: The Republication of An American Citizen I–IV in Virginia, 11 October–c. 15 DecemberCharles Tillinghast to Hugh Hughes, New York, 12 OctoberPhiladelphia Independent Gazetteer, 12 OctoberJames Monroe to James Madison, Richmond, 13 October (excerpt)James Monroe to Lambert Cadwalader, Richmond, 15 OctoberGeorge Washington to Henry Knox, Mount Vernon, 15 OctoberThe General Assembly Receives the Constitution, 15–16 OctoberRichard Henry Lee and the Constitution, 16 OctoberDavid Stuart to George Washington, Richmond, 16 OctoberSt. George Tucker to Frances Bland Tucker, Richmond, 17 OctoberGeorge Washington to David Stuart, Mount Vernon, 17 OctoberAttacks on the Three Non-Signers of the Constitution, Philadelphia, 17 OctoberCato Uticensis, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 17 OctoberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 18 OctoberJohn Dawson to James Madison, Richmond, 19 OctoberPatrick Henry to George Washington, Richmond, 19 OctoberTobias Lear to John Langdon, Mount Vernon, 19 OctoberMartin Oster to le Maréchal de Castries, Norfolk, 19 OctoberFredericksburg Town Meeting, 20 OctoberGeorge Mason to Elbridge Gerry, Gunston Hall, Fairfax County, 20 OctoberTench Coxe to James Madison, Philadelphia, 21 OctoberPatrick Henry to Thomas Madison, Richmond, 21 OctoberJohn Pierce to Henry Knox, Richmond, 21 OctoberArchibald Stuart to John Breckinridge, Richmond, 21 OctoberArchibald Stuart to James Madison, Richmond, 21 OctoberFrederick County Meeting, 22 OctoberHenrico County Meeting, 22 OctoberEdward Carrington to Thomas Jefferson, New York, 23 OctoberPetersburg Town Meeting, 24 OctoberJames Madison to Thomas Jefferson, New York, 24 October, 1 NovemberJames Madison to William Short, New York, 24 OctoberThe General Assembly Calls a State Convention, 25–31 OctoberDavid Stuart to George Washington, Richmond, 26 OctoberWinchester Virginia Gazette, 26 OctoberJohn Dawson to James Monroe to the Freeholders of Fredericksburg, Richmond, 26 OctoberGeorge Lee Turberville to Arthur Lee Richmond, 26 OctoberJohn Pierce to Henry Knox, Richmond, 26 October§ Editors’ Note: Richard Henry Lee to Samuel Adams, New York, 27 OctoberSt. George Tucker to Frances Bland Tucker, Richmond, 27 OctoberPhiladelphia Independent Gazetteer, 27 OctoberJames Madison to Edmund Pendleton, New York, 28 OctoberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 28 OctoberGeorge Lee Turberville to Arthur Lee, Richmond, 28 OctoberJoseph Jones to James Madison, Richmond, 29 OctoberArthur Lee to Edward Rutledge, New York, 29 OctoberJean Savary de Valcoulon to William Short, Richmond, 29 OctoberEdmund Randolph to James Madison, Richmond, c. 29 OctoberJames Madison to Archibald Stuart, New York, 30 OctoberJames Breckinridge to John Breckinridge, Richmond, 31 OctoberJames McClurg to James Madison, Richmond, 31 OctoberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 31 OctoberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 31 OctoberArchibald Stuart to James Madison, Richmond, 2 NovemberThe Problem of Debt Collection, 2, 7 NovemberWilliam Graham to Zachariah Johnston, Rockbridge, 3 NovemberBushrod Washington to Robert Carter, Richmond, 4 NovemberThomas Wilson to Archibald Stuart, 4 NovemberGeorge Washington to James Madison, Mount Vernon, 5 NovemberGeorge Washington to David Stuart, Mount Vernon, 5 NovemberGeorge Mason to George Washington, Richmond, 6 NovemberArchibald Stuart to John Breckinridge, Richmond, 6 NovemberArchibald Stuart to James Madison, Richmond, 9 NovemberEdward Carrington to Thomas Jefferson, New York, 10 NovemberJohn Dawson to James Madison, Richmond, c. 10 NovemberWilliam Grayson to William Short, New York, 10 NovemberGeorge Washington to Alexander Hamilton, Mount Vernon, 10 NovemberGeorge Washington to Bushrod Washington, Mount Vernon, 10 NovemberAlexander Donald to Thomas Jefferson, Richmond, 12 NovemberJohn Pierce to Henry Knox, Richmond, 12 NovemberCaleb Wallace to James Madison, Fayette County, Ky., 12 NovemberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 14 NovemberA True Friend, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 14 NovemberCharles M. Thruston to the Mayor of Winchester, Richmond, 15 NovemberWinchester Virginia Gazette, 16 NovemberJames Madison to Edmund Randolph, New York, 18 NovemberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 18 NovemberJohn Pierce to Henry Knox, Richmond, 19 NovemberJames Hughes to Horatio Gates, Alexandria, 20 NovemberThe Union Society Considers the Constitution, Richmond, 21 November 1787–5 January 1788Joseph Jones to James Madison, Richmond, 22 NovemberBrutus, Virginia Journal, 22 NovemberHoratio Gates to James Madison, Travellers Rest, 26 NovemberFrom Miles King, Richmond, 26 NovemberLouis-Guillaume Otto to Comte de Montmorin, New York, 26 NovemberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 28 November§ Editors’ Note: The Republication of The Federalist in Virginia, 28 November 1787–9 January 1788William Shippen, Jr., to Thomas Lee Shippen, Philadelphia, 29 NovemberThe General Assembly Adopts an Act for Paying the State Convention Delegates, 30 November–27 DecemberGeorge Washington to David Stuart, Mount Vernon, 30 NovemberMeriwether Smith, Charles M. Thruston, John H. Briggs, and Mann Page, Jr., to Governor Edmund Randolph, Richmond, 2 DecemberArchibald Stuart to James Madison, Richmond, 2 DecemberTobias Lear to John Langdon, Mount Vernon, 3 DecemberGeorge Washington to John Langdon, Mount Vernon, 3 December§ Editors’ Note: The Virginia Reprinting of Benjamin Franklin's Last Speech in the Constitutional Convention, 5–15 DecemberVirginia Independent Chronicle, 5 DecemberAmericanus I, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 5 DecemberDon Diego de Gardoqui to Conde de Floridablanca, New York, 6 DecemberJames Monroe to James Madison, Richmond, 6 DecemberRichard Terrill to Garret Minor, Washington County, 6 DecemberPetersburg Virginia Gazette, 6 DecemberPhilanthropos, Virginia Journal, 6 DecemberBrutus, Virginia Journal, 6 DecemberA True Friend, Richmond, 6 DecemberHarry Innes to John Brown, Danville, Ky., 7 DecemberHenry Lee to James Madison, Stratford, Westmoreland County, 7 DecemberGeorge Washington to James Madison, Mount Vernon, 7 DecemberJames Madison to Thomas Jefferson, New York, 9 DecemberMatthew Maury to James Maury, 10 DecemberGov. Edmund Randolph to Meriwether Smith, Charles M. Thruston, John H. Briggs, and Mann Page, Jr., Richmond, 10 DecemberLandholder VI, Connecticut Courant, 10 DecemberGeorge Lee Turberville to James Madison, Richmond, 11 DecemberJames Mercer to John Francis Mercer, Richmond, 12 DecemberNov. Anglus, Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal, 12 December§ Editors’ Note: George Washington to Charles Carter, Mount Vernon, 14 DecemberJames Madison to Archibald Stuart, New York, 14 DecemberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 14 DecemberAntoine de la Forest to Comte de Montmorin, New York, 15 DecemberThomas Jefferson to William Carmichael, Paris, 15 December§ Editors’ Note: Richmond Pamphlet Anthologies, c. 15 DecemberJohn Brown to Archibald Stuart, New York, 16 DecemberLawrence Taliaferro to James Madison, Rose Hill, 16 DecemberJoseph Jones to James Madison, Richmond, 18 DecemberAdam Stephen to Horatio Gates, 19 DecemberAmericanus II, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 19 DecemberHenry Lee to James Madison, c. 20 DecemberThomas Jefferson to James Madison, Paris, 20 DecemberJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 20 DecemberSamuel McDowell to William Fleming, Mercer County, Ky., 20 DecemberWilliam Short to James Madison, Paris, 21 DecemberWarner Lewis to Alexander Donald, Warner Hall, 22 DecemberAndrew Shepherd to James Madison, Orange, 22 DecemberGeorge Gilmer to Thomas Jefferson, Pen Park, 23 DecemberRufus King to Jeremiah Wadsworth, New York, 23 DecemberPennsylvania Packet, 25 December“C.D.”, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 26 DecemberThe Publication of Edmund Randolph's Reasons for Not Signing the Constitution, Richmond, 27 DecemberEdmund Randolph to James Madison, Richmond, 27 DecemberGeorge Washington on the Constitution, 27 December 1787–20 February 1788George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, Mount Vernon, 1 January 1788Samuel A. Otis to Elbridge Gerry, New York, 2 JanuaryPhiladelphia Freeman's Journal, 2 JanuaryPennsylvania Gazette, 2 JanuaryEdmund Randolph to James Madison, Richmond, 3 JanuaryGeorge Lee Turberville to James Madison, Richmond, 8 JanuaryGeorge Washington to Edmund Randolph, Mount Vernon, 8 JanuaryTamony, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 9 JanuaryJames Madison to Edmund Randolph, New York, 10 JanuaryGeorge Washington to James Madison, Mount Vernon, 10 JanuaryAn Impartial Citizen, Petersburg Virginia Gazette, 10 JanuaryVirginia Herald, 10 JanuaryEdward Carrington to Henry Knox, Fredericksburg, 12 JanuaryArchibald Stuart to James Madison, Richmond, 14 JanuaryThe State Soldier I, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 16 JanuaryEdward Carrington to James Madison, Richmond, 18 JanuaryAn Independent Freeholder, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 18 JanuaryTench Coxe to James Madison, Philadelphia, 23 JanuaryValerius, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 23 JanuaryJohn Breckinridge to James Breckinridge, Grove Hill, Botetourt County, 25 JanuaryTobias Lear to John Langdon, Mount Vernon, 25 January (excepts)James Madison to George Washington, New York, 25 JanuaryWilliam Russell to William Fleming, Aspenville, 25 JanuaryFrom Olney Winsor, Alexandria, 25 JanuaryAn Independent Freeholder, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 25 JanuaryWilliam Hartshorne and Company to Nathaniel West and Company, Alexandria, 26 JanuaryJohn Brown to James Breckinridge, New York, 28 JanuaryJames Madison, Sr., to James Madison, 30 JanuaryPhiladelphia Freeman's Journal, 30 JanuaryCivis Rusticus, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 30 JanuaryNov. Anglus, Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal, 30 JanuaryWilliam Short to William Grayson, Paris, 31 JanuaryVirginia Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, 31 JanuaryMartin Oster to Comte de la Luzerne, Norfolk, 4 FebruaryGeorge Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Mount Vernon, 5 FebruaryThe State Soldier II, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 6 FebruaryThomas Jefferson to Alexander Donald, Paris, 7 FebruaryJames Monroe to James Madison, Fredericksburg, 7 FebruaryGeorge Washington to the Marquis de Lafayette, Mount Vernon, 7 FebruaryPennsylvania Herald, 7 FebruaryThe Reverend James Madison to James Madison, Williamsburg, 9 FebruaryEdward Carrington to Henry Knox, Manchester, 10 FebruaryEdward Carrington to James Madison, Manchester, 10 FebruaryJohn Preston to John Brown, Smithfield, Montgomery County, 10 FebruaryJohn Enys Journal, Mount Vernon, 13 FebruaryA Plain Dealer, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 13 FebruaryA Virginian, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 13 FebruaryJoseph Jones to James Madison, Richmond, 14 FebruaryFrom George Nicholas, Charlottesville, 16 FebruaryRepublicus, Kentucky Gazette, 16 FebruaryJoseph Jones to James Madison, Richmond, 17 FebruaryDavid Stuart to George Washington, Abingdon, Fairfax County, 17 FebruaryCyrus Griffin to Thomas FitzSimons, New York, 18 FebruaryCollin McGregor to Neil Jamieson, New York, 18 FebruaryJohn Dawson to James Madison, Fredericksburg, 18 FebruaryWilliam Fleming to Thomas Madison, Belmont, Botetourt County, 19 FebruaryJames Madison to Thomas Jefferson, New York, 19 FebruaryJohn Armstrong, Sr., to George Washington, Carlisle, Pa., 20 FebruaryHarry Innes to John Brown, Danville, Ky., 20 FebruaryThe Impartial Examiner I, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 20 FebruaryAn Old Planter, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 20 February§ Editors’ Note: Marcus, Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal, 20 February–19 MarchFrancis Corbin to Edmund Randolph, Buckingham Lodge, Middlesex County, 21 FebruaryJames Madison to Edmund Pendleton, New York, 21 FebruaryThe New Litany, Virginia Herald, 21 FebruaryAlexander White, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 22 FebruaryThe Political Club of Danville, Kentucky, Debates over the Constitution, 23 February–17 MayRichard Henry Lee to James Gordon, Jr. Chantilly, 26 FebruaryThe Impartial Examiner I, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 27 FebruaryJoseph Spencer to James Madison, Orange County, 28 FebruaryGeorge Washington to Caleb Gibbs, Mount Vernon, 28 FebruaryAn Impartial Citizen V, Petersburg Virginia Gazette, 28 FebruaryCircular Letter to the Fayette County Court, Danville, Ky., 29 FebruaryEdmund Randolph to James Madison, Richmond, 29 FebruaryAlexander White, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 29 FebruaryWinchester Virginia Gazette, 29 FebruaryRepublicus, Kentucky Gazette, 1 MarchGeorge Washington to James Madison, Mount Vernon, 2 MarchCyrus Griffin to Thomas FitzSimons, New York, 3 MarchThomas Hartley to Tench Coxe, York, Pennsylvania, 3 MarchJames Madison to George Washington, New York, 3 MarchGeorge Washington to John Jay, Mount Vernon, 3 MarchTobias Lear to William Prescott, Jr. Mount Vernon, 4 MarchMassachusetts Salem Mercury, 4 MarchA Federal Republican, Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal, 5 MarchThe Impartial Examiner I, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 5 MarchJohn Page to Thomas Jefferson, Rosewell, 7 MarchArthur Lee's Report on Virginia Antifederalism, Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer, 7 MarchThe Editorial Policy of the Winchester Virginia Gazette, 7, 14 MarchWinchester Virginia Gazette, 7 MarchArthur Campbell on the Constitution, Washington County, 8, 9 MarchPhiladelphia Federal Gazette, 8 MarchWilliam Nelson, Jr., to William Short, Williamsburg, 9, 13 MarchGeorge Washington to Benjamin Lincoln, Mount Vernon, 10 MarchJames Duncanson to James Maury, Fredericksburg, 11 MarchA Virginian, Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal, 12 MarchOne of the People called Quakers in the State of Virginia, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 12 MarchThe State Soldier III, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 12 MarchEdward Carrington to Henry Knox, Richmond, 13 MarchAn Impartial Citizen VI, Petersburg Virginia Gazette, 13 MarchWinchester Virginia Gazette, 14 MarchMinton Collins to Stephen Collins, Richmond, 16 MarchVirginia Independent Chronicle, 19 MarchSenex, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 19 MarchA Ploughman, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 19 MarchThe State Soldier IV, Virginia Independent Chronicle, 19 MarchCaleb Wallace to William Fleming, Danville, Ky., 22 MarchWilliam Finnie to Horatio Gates, Williamsburg, 24 MarchWinchester Virginia Gazette, 26 MarchThe Post Office and the Circulation of Newspapers, Winchester Virginia Gazette, 26 March–9 AprilAlexander Contee Hanson to Tench Coxe, Annapolis, 27 MarchJohn Coalter to Michael Coalter, Chesterfield County, 29 MarchGeorge Washington to Henry Knox, Mount Vernon, 30 MarchArthur Lee to Charles Lee, New York, 31 MarchOlney Winsor to Mrs. Olney (Hope) Winsor, Alexandria, 31 March
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